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The conative function
is oriented towards the
. He/she receives a message and reacts to it.
Such message use vocative and imperative.
- 'Could you please close the window?'
- 'It is freezing in here ...'
The last two example aim at the same reaction, the first being an explicit, the second an implicit form of direct speech.
Roman Jakobson, "Closing Statement: Linguistics and Poetics" (1960) published in Cook, Jon (ed.). Poetry in Theory. An Anthology 1900-2000. Oxford: Blackwell, 350-358.
Christoph Küper, "Sprache und Metrum", Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen, 1988, 11-15
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